The circumstances under which California businesses may classify workers as independent contractors rather than employees under California wage laws have been greatly narrowed by a decision the California Supreme Court issued April 30, 2018. The landmark decision in the case known as Dynamex presumes that all workers are employees, sets out a new three-part “ABC” test businesses must satisfy in order to classify workers as independent contractors, and, as one expects in California, places the burden on the business, not the worker, to prove that any particular worker is properly classified as an independent contractor. The decision has immediate ramifications for businesses throughout California. The decision is also likely to influence the development of the law in jurisdictions outside California. Continue Reading
The headlines may feature the names of powerful businessmen and stars who’ve been accused of sexual harassment, but employers should remember the perpetrator may not always be a man. Powerful women can be harassers, too. And there is the key: harassment is more about power than gender.
Abigail Saguy, a Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at UCLA who has studied sexual harassment for decades, argues that one of the most fundamental components of harassment is not necessarily gender, but the power dynamic created by managerial responsibilities and authority. These managerial positions have historically been held by more men than women, thus providing for a greater likelihood that the aggressor be male. But this situation is rapidly changing. Continue Reading
Handing over access to your social media account might be the next big move in U.S. immigration law. In a formal notice issued on March 30, 2018, the Department of State advised that it plans to require nearly all visa applicants to the U.S. to submit five years of social media handles for specific platforms identified by the government, with an option for foreigners to voluntarily turn over aliases associated with any other social media network not explicitly required by the government which have been used in the five years prior.
According to the notice published in the Federal Register, the State Department is considering revising its electronic visa registration system to require visa applicants to answer a series of questions aimed at eliciting social media history. The Electronic Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration (DS-260)—which is required for nearly all immigrant visa applicants to obtain immigration benefits in the U.S.—is an online application administered by the Department’s Bureau of Consular Affairs. It is used to collect biographical information from individuals seeking legal permanent residency in the U.S. Consular officials use the data collected in the DS-260 to determine an applicant’s eligibility for a green card at the time of a visa interview. Continue Reading
Employers who would like to work with the Department of Labor to correct potential wage and hour violations before they get sued may get their wish: the DOL has launched a Payroll Audit Independent Determination (PAID) program. The agency has invited all employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act to consider participating in this six-month pilot program. However, is it worthwhile?
To participate in PAID, the DOL still requires the employer to undertake its own internal assessment of its compensation practices and how those practices have been applied to employees. For instance, if an employer suspects that employees have worked off the clock, the employer first must determine: (i) which employees are affected; (ii) the time period for which the employees’ hours are short; and (iii) the amount of back wages owed to the affected employees. Then, prior to making payment, the employer submits the information for each such violation to the DOL for the agency to determine whether it agrees with the calculations. The agency will examine the employer’s records to verify the information and the calculations submitted, and review whatever other information it deems necessary to confirm the back wages due, and then issue a summary of unpaid wages. Employers will need to have their checkbooks ready, as all back wages must be paid by the end of the next full pay period after receiving the summary of unpaid wages. Continue Reading
Employers may have a bit more flexibility in determining which employees are exempt from overtime following a U.S. Supreme Court ruling issued this week that specifically rejected the decades-old principle that exemptions under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) should be “narrowly construed.” In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled in Encino Motor Cars, LLC v. Navarro that an automobile dealership need not pay its service advisors time and one-half for all hours worked in excess of forty in a work week. In deciding that service advisors were exempt employees under the FLSA, the Court rejected the U.S. Department of Labor regulation that previously required service advisors to be paid overtime. Continue Reading
Healthcare employers take note: the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) has issued a proposed rule that, if passed, will allow healthcare workers who object to performing certain medical procedures like abortions and gender reassignment surgeries to refuse to perform such procedures on the grounds of religious freedom. If passed, the proposed rule would apply to over 700,000 healthcare facilities, including hospitals, dentists’ offices, pharmacies, ambulance services and others that receive federal funding. Again, if the rule is passed, it would require healthcare entities receiving federal grants to certify their compliance with the law. The proposed rule would also require healthcare entities to notify employees of the law and allow the Office of Civil Rights to initiate a compliance review of any entity receiving federal funds to determine whether the employee notice appears in appropriate places, like employee handbooks and employment applications. Continue Reading
Title VII’s protections against sex discrimination extend to transgender workers, even in the face of a challenge based on the employer’s religious rights, a federal appellate court has held. A funeral home violated Title VII when it terminated its funeral home director after she disclosed that she planned to transition from male to female and thus wanted to dress in women’s clothing while at work, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in Stephens v. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc.
The funeral home owner, a devout Christian, argued the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act (“RFRA”), which prohibits the government from substantially burdening an individual’s religious practice, protected him from Title VII liability. The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected that argument, essentially holding that the owner of the funeral home could not use his religious beliefs as a reason to engage in sex discrimination. Continue Reading
Proposed changes to the rule authorizing employment for H-4 status holders could spell an increase in H-1B petitions this upcoming fiscal year, and ultimately, increased sponsorship costs for employers. Consequently, employers with workers who presented an H-4 EAD card as their I-9 employment eligibility documentation are strongly advised to consider sponsoring such workers who qualify for H-1B status in the upcoming fiscal year quota. Employers can submit H-1B petitions on behalf of eligible workers in H-4 status during the first week of April for entry in the FY2019 lottery selection process. Employers must be prepared to submit their paperwork to USCIS during the first five business days of April, which takes place this year from Monday, April 2 to Friday, April 6, 2018. Employers wanting more information on H-1B eligibility requirements and the FY2019 lottery season can click here for further details. Continue Reading
In a surprising move, the National Labor Relations Board has overturned its recent decision that had overruled an expansive joint employer standard set forth by the previous Obama-era Board. So, at least for the time being, where an entity has reserved the right to control employees with another entity – even if that control was never exercised – the Board will continue to find a joint employment relationship under the National Labor Relations Act.
The “joint employer” concept is of vital importance in two major areas regulated by the Board: The first concerns unfair labor practice charges: Who may be held jointly liable for engaging in unfair labor practices? The second concerns collective bargaining/economic activity obligations: Who has the duty to bargain? Who is bound by the collective-bargaining agreement? Who may be subject to strikes, boycotts and picketing? Continue Reading
A second federal appellate court has ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on their sexual orientation. The ruling is in line with the EEOC’s interpretation of the law, but at odds with the interpretation by the current administration’s Department of Justice.
The case, Zarda v. Altitude Express, Inc., involved a skydiving instructor who was fired after his employer received a complaint that he inappropriately touched a female client during a tandem skydive and then disclosed his sexual orientation to excuse his behavior. The skydiving instructor denied inappropriately touching the client, but admitted he told the client he was gay, simply to preempt any discomfort she may have felt being strapped to him for the tandem skydive. The skydiving instructor alleged he was fired solely because of his sexual orientation, which he maintained violated Title VII’s prohibition on discrimination based on sex. The employer argued that Title VII does not cover, and was not intended to cover, sexual orientation discrimination because, among other things, it only refers to discrimination “because . . . of sex.” Continue Reading